The Effect of Extra Kodaly-Based Music Instruction and Classroom Teacher Involvement on Powderhorn..
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of extra Kodaly-based music instruction and classroom teacher involvement on first-grade students' music, reading, and math achievement and social skills development. Subjects in the pretest-posttest control group design were 41 first-grade students who were randomly enrolled in four first grades in an inner-city elementary community school. Both experimental (n=29) and control (n=12) groups received the same basic weekly Kodaly music instruction. The three experimental classes and their teachers met weekly with the music educator for an extra 30 minutes of instruction in the music room. Two music achievement measures, five reading achievement measures, four math achievement measures, and eight individual social skill development measures served as the dependent variables. The group behavior/engagement social skill development measures correlated .87 (Spearman Correlation) with the difference between experimental and control groups, and served as another measure of relationship to the dependent variables.