Pedagogy & Resources for the Flipped/Inverted Classroom
What is the flipped classroom?
"The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. Short video lectures are viewed by students at home before the class session, while in-class time is devoted to exercises, projects, or discussions. The video lecture is often seen as the key ingredient in the flipped approach, such lectures being either created by the instructor and posted online or selected from an online repository. While a prerecorded lecture could certainly be a podcast or other audio format, the ease with which video can be accessed and viewed today has made it so ubiquitous that the flipped model has come to be identified with it." --Educause - 7 Things you should know about flipped classrooms
What is flipped learning?
"Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter." --Flipped Learning Network - http://www.flippedlearning.org/domain/46
Pedagogy & Instructional Design
The Flipped Classroom: Tips for Integrating Moments of Reflection
An instructional design model for screencasting: Engaging students in self-regulated learning
- At the start [of the lecture/screencast] the problem [topic] is placed in context, to motivate why it may be beneficial to know/understand [topic/problem]
- Prerequisites are listed, and guidance is given on how to acquire these, e.g. if a learner does not remember how to complete…they are guided to the appropriate screencast.
- The learner is asked to note which areas covered in the screencast (or not covered) they have problems with, and follow up on these with the tutor or by watching relevant screencasts.
- The learner is also asked to set learning goals, e.g. “I will be able to…after working through these screencasts.”
- The narrator pauses regularly, suggesting to the learner to pause the recording and try for themselves first before watching the explanation. The narrator also asks the question ”what would the next step be”, and gives the learner time to think.
- The learner is asked to self-assess their performance, e.g. after watching they are asked to attempt the same problem themselves, and to try other problems.
Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom
Herreid, C. F., & Schiller, N. A. (2013). Case studies and the flipped classroom. Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(5), 62. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA328532013&v=2.1&u=clic_stthomas&it=r&p=ITOF&sw=w&asid=760c7a199e1f97320c0468432b2e2553
Resources to Explore
Flipped Classrooms - Old or New?
A post on Stanford's Tomorrow's Professor newsletter by Dr. Marilla Svinicki, University of Texas at Austin maintains that the teaching strategies involved in flipping are "...old and valuable, but they haven't been usable because of constraints of time and effort on the parts of both students and teacher. It is the possibility of implementing these key principles that is new, and often enabled by technology's ability to capture their essence. Now we have to reframe the mindsets of both instructor and student about the role of face-to-face class time."
These Lectures are Gone in Sixty Seconds
Take a 60-minute lecture. Cut the excess verbiage, do away with most of the details, and pare it down to key concepts and themes. What's left? A "microlecture" over in as few as 60 seconds. A course designer for San Juan College, a community college in Farmington, N.M., says that in online education, such tiny bursts can teach just as well as traditional lectures when paired with assignments and discussions.
Lecture Capture Can Change Classroom Dynamics for the Better
When I heard a teacher tell me that they were creating recorded lectures for courses as homework assignments and spending classroom time on discussions and more active learning, I knew right then the value of the lecture capture tools.
Using Screencasting to Engage and Build Community with Online Learners
In the online classroom, faculty work hard to engage their distance learners and build a strong sense of academic community in the electronic setting. Screencasting can be an effective and easy way to do this. Screencasting allows you to take a digital video of what you are doing on your computer desktop, and most screencasting tools allow you to narrate your video while recording. The possible uses for screencasting are endless; these include providing course orientations, delivering instructional lectures, providing feedback, and encouraging student collaboration.
Casting Out Nines – a Chronicle blog by faculty member at Grand Valley State University talking about practice of flipping/inverting the classroom:
Best Practices for Video & Online Lectures
Learning to Teach Through Video
A good background in the cognitive psychology of multimedia learning with nine tips to consider when developing your online lecture.
Preparing a script for online lectures:
- Making Online PowerPoint Content Engaging: Writing a Narration Script: http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/making-online-powerpoint-content-engaging-writing-a-narration-script/
- Making Online PowerPoint Content Engaging: Preparing for High-Quality Narration: http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-with-technology-articles/making-online-powerpoint-content-engaging-preparing-for-high-quality-narration
Using Video Screencasts to Scaffold Student Learning
- Keep it short: 5 minutes
- One main goal or concept [per video]
- Use [the software to create] visual & verbal cues to highlight key points
- Sync cues [visual information] with the narration
- Tell students what they will learn [include objectives for lecture]
- Provide concrete examples
- Use comparisons and analogies
- Simulate a realistic context/situation
- Include opportunities for practice, reflection, and feedback [Depending on the software you use to create your lecture/screencast you may not be able to build in practice/feedback but can design it into the module that incorporates the lecture/screencast.]
- Make it accessible (e.g. closed captions, transcripts)
Incorporating Active Learning by Flipping the Classroom - Handouts and materials from the January 22, 2014 workshop with Dr. Jason Rhode.